As the population grows older, numerous age-related medical conditions, from Alzheimers disease to osteoporosis, are becoming more commonplace. Likewise, physicians are encountering a quickly rising number of heart-related problems, too. Among them is atrial fibrillation (AF), a condition in which the hearts two upper chambers, the atria, will starting beating irregularly and out of synch with the ventricles (lower chambers). About 20 million people worldwide have AF. The numbers of AF cases are increasing so rapidly that the European Heart Rhythm Association called AF the new epidemic in cardiovascular medicine in a report issued in June.